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The Data Citation Synthesis Group has released a draft Declaration of Data Citation Principles and invites comment.

This has been a very interesting and positive collaborative process and has involved a number of groups and committed individuals. Encouraging the practice of data citation, it seems to me, is one of the key steps towards giving research data its proper place in the literature.

As the preamble to the draft principles states:

Sound, reproducible scholarship rests upon a foundation of robust, accessible data. For this to be so in practice as well as theory, data must be accorded due importance in the practice of scholarship and in the enduring scholarly record. In other words, data should be considered legitimate, citable products of research. Data citation, like the citation of other evidence and sources, is good research practice.

In support of this assertion, and to encourage good practice, we offer a set of guiding principles for data citation.

Please do comment on these principles. We hope that with community feedback and support, a finalised set of principles can be widely endorsed and adopted.

Discussion on a variety of lists is welcome, of course. However, if you want the Synthesis Group to take full account of your views, please be sure to post your comments on the discussion forum.

Some notes and observations on the background to these principles

I would like to add here some notes and observations on the genesis of these principles. As has been widely observed there have been a number of groups and interested parties involved in exploring the principles of data citation for a number of years. Mentioning only some of the sources and events that affected my own thinking on the matter, there was the 2007 Micah Altman and Gary King article, in DLib, which offered ‘A Proposed Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Quantitative Data’ and Toby Green’s OECD White Paper ‘We need publishing standards for datasets and data tables’ in 2009. Micah Altman and Mercè Crosas organised a workshop at Harvard in May 2011 on Data Citation Principles. Later the same year, the UK Digital Curation Centre published a guide to citing data in 2011.

The CODATA-ICSTI Task Group on Data Citation Standards and Practices (co-chaired by Christine Borgman, Jan Brase and Sara Callaghan) has been in existence since 2010. In collaboration with the US National CODATA Committee and the Board on Research Data and Information, a major workshop was organised in August 2011, which was reported in ‘For Attribution: Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards’.

The CODATA-ICSTI Task Group then started work on a report covering data citation principles, eventually entitled ‘Out of Cite, Out of Mind’ – drafts were circulated for comment in April 2013 and the final report was released in September 2013.

Following the first ‘Beyond the PDF’ meeting in Jan 2011 participants produced the Force11 Manifesto ‘Improving Future Research Communication and e-Scholarship’ which places considerable weight on the availability of research data and the citation of those data in the literature. At ‘Beyond the PDF II’ in Amsterdam, March 2013, a group comprising Mercè Crosas, Todd Carpenter, David Shotton and Christine Borgman produced ‘The Amsterdam Manifesto on Data Citation Principles’. In the very same week, in Gothenburg, an RDA Birds of a Feather group was discussing the more specific problem of how to support, technologically, the reliable and efficient citation of dynamically changing or growing datasets and subsets thereof. And the broader issues of the place of data and research publication were being considered in the ICSU World Data Service Working Group on Data Publication. This group has, in turn, formed the basis for an RDA Interest Group.  Oooffff!

How great a thing is collaboration?

From June 2013, as the Force11 Group was preparing its website and activities to take forward the work on the Amsterdam Manifesto, calls came in from a number of sources for these various groups and initiatives to coordinate and collaborate. This was admirably well-received and from July the ‘Data Citation Synthesis Group’ had come into being with an agreed mission statement:

The data citation synthesis group is a cross-team committee leveraging the perspectives from the various existing initiatives working on data citation to produce a consolidated set of data citation principles (based on the Amsterdam Manifesto, the CODATA and other sets of principles provided by others) in order to encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for data citation across disciplines and venues. The synthesis group will review existing efforts and make a set of recommendations that will be put up for endorsement by the organizations represented by this synthesis group.

The synthesis group will produce a set of principles, illustrated with working examples, and a plan for dissemination and distribution. This group will not be producing detailed specifications for implementation, nor focus on technologies or tools.

As has been noted elsewhere , the group comprised 40 individuals and brought together a large number of organisations and initiatives. What followed over the summer was a set of weekly calls to discuss and align the principles. I must say, I thought these were admirably organised and benefitted considerably from participants’ efforts to prepare documents comparing the various groups’ statements. The face-to-face meeting of the group, in which a lot of detailed discussion to finalise the draft was undertaken, was hosted (with a funding contribution from CODATA) at the US National Academies of Science between the 2nd RDA Plenary and the DataCite Summer Meeting (which CODATA also co-sponsored). It has been intellectually stimulating and a real pleasure to contribute to these discussions and to witness so many informed and engaged people bashing out these issues.

The principles developed by the Synthesis Group are now open for comment and I urge as many people, researchers, editors and publishers as possible who believe that data has a place in scholarly communications to comment on them and, in due course, to endorse them and put them into practice.

Are we finally at the cusp of real change in practice? Will we now start seeing the practice of citing data sources become more and more widespread? It’s soon to say for sure, but I hope these principles, and the work on which they build, have got us to a stage where we can start really believing the change is well underway.

Simon Hodson is Executive Director of CODATA and a member of the Dryad Board of Directors.  This post was originally published on the CODATA blog.

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As we announced earlier, Dryad will be introducing data publishing fees at the beginning of September. Here’s why we are doing this, and what it will mean for you as a submitter.

Why?

The Data Publishing Charge (DPC) is a modest fee that recovers the basic costs of curation and preservation, and allows Dryad to make its contents freely available for researchers and educators at any institution anywhere in the world.  DPCs provide a broad and fair revenue stream that scales with the costs of maintaining the repository, and helps ensure that Dryad can keep its commitment to long-term accessibility.

Who pays?

There are three cases:

  1. The DPC is waived in its entirety if the submitter is based in a country classified by the World Bank as a low-income or lower-middle-income economy.
  2. For many journals, the society or publisher will sponsor the DPC on behalf of their authors; you can see whether this applies to your journal here (the list is growing quickly, so be sure to check back when you are ready to submit new data).
  3. In the absence of a waiver or a sponsor, the DPC is US$80, payable by the submitter.  Payment details are accepted upon submission, but the fee will not be charged unless and until the data package is accepted for publication.

Two additional fees may apply. Submitters will be charged for data packages in excess of 10GB (US$15 for the first additional GB and US$10 for each GB thereafter), to cover additional storage costs.  If there is no sponsor, and the data package is associated with a journal lacking integrated data and manuscript submission, the submitter will be charged US$10 to cover the additional curation costs.

Submitters may use grant funds, institutional funds, or any other source, as long as payment can be made using a credit card or PayPal.  We regret that submitters cannot be invoiced for single submissions – but please do contact us if you are interested in purchasing a larger group of vouchers for future use.  We encourage researchers to inquire with librarians at their institution about available funding sources, and to budget data publication funds for future submissions into their grants, as part of their data management plan.

Note that there will be no charges for submissions made before the introduction of DPCs in September, regardless of when the data package is accepted for publication.

Help us spread the word

If your organization does not yet sponsor Data Publication Charges, or is not yet a Member, you may wish to let them know that you feel data archiving deserves their financial support.  Dryad offers a variety of flexible payment plans that provide for volume discounts, and there are additional discounts for Member organizations.  Organizations need not be publishers. Universities, funders, libraries and even individual research groups can purchase bundles of single-use vouchers that will cover the DPCs for data packages associated with publications appearing in any journal, as well as other publication types such as monographs and theses.  Prospective sponsors and Members may contact director@datadryad.org to figure out what will work best for their circumstances.

We are grateful for all the input we have received into our sustainability planning, and look forward to the continued support of our community in carrying out our nonprofit mission for many long years to come.  If you have questions or suggestions, please leave a comment or contact us here.

We are pleased to announce that Elementa is the latest journal to integrate submission of manuscripts with data to Dryad.  Elementa’s integration with Dryad means that all authors will be invited to archive the data supporting the conclusions in their article, and their process of depositing data files has been simplified by the behind-scenes-coordination between the journal and the repository. Authors will be invited to submit data to Dryad when their manuscript is accepted, and will have the option to set a one-year embargo on the availability of their data files.

The journal has a strong data policy, requiring “all major datasets associated with an article to be made freely and widely available.” The journal is also a Dryad member, and will be covering the charges for its authors when Dryad begins assessing Data Publishing Charges (DPC) on September 1.

Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene is a new open access scientific journal publishing original research reporting new knowledge of the Earth’s physical, chemical, and biological systems.

logo The journal is a nonprofit collaborative involving BioOne, Dartmouth, the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Colorado, the University of Michigan, and the University of Washington. Elementa is comprised of six inaugural knowledge domains: Atmospheric Science, Earth and Environmental Science, Ecology, Ocean Science, Sustainable Engineering, and Sustainability Transitions.

The journal is now welcoming article submissions, and the first articles will be published in September.

We are pleased to announce that Ecology Letters is the latest journal to integrate submission of manuscripts with data to Dryad.  In this process, the journal and repository communicate behind the scenes in order to streamline data submission for authors, and also to ensure that the article contains a permanent link to the data.

EcolLettCover copyEcology Letters is published by The French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), a public basic-research organization that defines its mission as producing knowledge and making it available to society. Marcel Holyaok, the journal’s Editor-in-Chief, has been actively involved with Dryad since 2009, serving on the Consortium Board from 2009-2011, and currently on the elected Board of Directors.

There are already a number of articles in Ecology Letters with associated data in Dryad, including the most frequently downloaded data file in Dryad, The Global Wood Density Database, which has been downloaded nearly 6000 times:

Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.234

Article:

Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01285.x

Dryad is delighted to welcome Ecology Letters to the growing group of journals that have taken this important step to support and facilitate their authors’ data archiving.

We’re happy to announce that presentations are now available from Dryad’s Annual Membership Meeting, held at St. Anne’s College, Oxford this May.  Dryad personnel reported on the state of the repository and the organization’s sustainability and business strategy.  The meeting also included a very valuable “Emerging Issues Forum” that looked forward to new opportunities for the repository and its community of users. We heard from Marianne Bamkin on model journal policies, Jonathan Tedds on review of data associated with publications, Simon Hodson on funding for data archiving costs, Sarah Callaghan on recommendations for data citation policy, Martin Fenner on ways to track data usage and impact, Eefke Smit on the state of the art in repository certification, Susanna-Assunta Sansone on the relevance of the ISA and Biosharing initiatives, and Bill Michener on the opportunities provided by DataONE and other DataNets.

This was the first community meeting since Dryad incorporated as a nonprofit in July 2012, and it was an opportunity for the organization’s Members to exercise their role in governance.  By electronic votes, returning director Susanna-Assunta Sansone, as well as new members Charles Fox, Martin Fenner and Carol Tenopir were elected to the 2016 class of the Board of Directors and several minor amendments to the ByLaws were unanimously adopted.

The meeting capped several days of programming around data, publication and scholarly communication.  The week kicked off with an exciting one-day symposium on The Now and Future of Data Publishing, cosponsored by Jisc, BioSharingDataONE, Dryad, STM and Wiley-Blackwell (presentations available on Slideshare). The next day, Dryad and ORCID co-organized a Symposium on Research Attribution in conjunction with ORCID’s Outreach Meeting and Codefest, and presentations from the symposium are available on the ORCID website.  The symposium featured keynote talks from Joanna McEntyre (Europe PubMedCentral) and David DeRoure (Oxford eResearch Centre); panel discussions with Liz Allen (Wellcome Trust), John Kaye (British Library), Neil Chue Hong (Software Sustainability Institute), Christine Borgman (UCLA), Trish Groves (BMJ) and Martin Fenner (PLOS); and a wrap-up discussion with Cameron Neylon (PLOS).

Many thanks to those of you who contributed as both organizers and participants, and a special thanks to our hosts at the Oxford eResearch Institute.   The next meeting will be in May 2013 in North America and will also be open to the community.  Please let us know if you have ideas for what you’d like to see in the next Emerging Issues forum.

We are pleased to share below the text of a press release from Elsevier, announcing use of this image to direct viewers of online articles to the underlying data in Dryad. Dryad_web_banner_small_v4eSee below for sample articles; the image displays on the right sidebar, under Applications and Tools. This Dryad widget may be used by any publisher or journal to facilitate access to related publicly available data that authors have archived in Dryad.

Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, and the Dryad Digital Repository, a leading archive for scientific and medical research data, today announced that they have implemented two-way linking between their respective content.

The Dryad Digital Repository provides facilities for archiving, discovery and accessibility of data files associated with any published article in the sciences or medicine, as well as software scripts and other files important to the article. Dryad is a nonprofit organization committed to its mission of making data publicly available for research and educational reuse. All data files stored in Dryad receive persistent, resolvable Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to ensure their proper citation.

Scientific and medical research datasets stored by Dryad for research articles published in 28 Elsevier journals can now be immediately accessed from the online articles on ScienceDirect and vice versa. This allows readers to easily find the background information they need in order to develop a deeper understanding of the article, and also helps to place the article in a larger context.

Dr. Todd Vision, Associate Director for Informatics at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center and Principal Investigator on the primary NSF grant funding Dryad since 2008, said, “We are delighted to work with Elsevier in cementing the union between scientific articles and research data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution was one of the first journals that joined the Dryad consortium and we would like to applaud them for recognizing that the integrity, rigor, and long-term impact of the science published by the journal is strengthened by archiving the associated data at the time of publication. We also believe that authors themselves will ultimately benefit, in the form of increased citations and other forms of professional credit, for making their data available for others to reuse.”

Dr. Derek Wildman, Editor in Chief of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, a journal which has successfully incorporated and uses the reciprocal linking option between Dyrad and ScienceDirect, said, “DNA sequence data serves as the basis for the majority of the studies we publish. Dryad has done an excellent job in establishing a public archive for all types of data used in evolutionary biology. By making these data sets public and allowing for direct linking between a published research papers, scientists can more efficiently build on the work of their predecessors, strengthening scientific research enterprise. We see the incorporation of the two-way linking as a win for all parties.”

The first 28 journals hosted on ScienceDirect to feature the reciprocal linking option, displayed in the right hand sidebar of the online article page view, are:

  • Animal Behaviour
  • Applied Soil Ecology
  • Behavioural Processes
  • Biological Conservation
  • Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics and Proteomics
  • Ecological Indicators
  • Environmental Pollution
  • Fisheries Research
  • Fungal Genetics and Biology
  • Gene
  • Hormones and Behavior
  • Infection, Genetics and Evolution
  • International Journal for Parasitology
  • Journal of Biomedical Informatics
  • Journal of Human Evolution
  • Journal of Informetrics
  • Marine Genomics
  • Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
  • Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
  • Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
  • Protist
  • Quaternary Science Reviews
  • Science of the Total Environment
  • Soil Biology and Biochemistry
  • Theoretical Population Biology
  • Toxicon
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution
  • Virus Research

This type of linking between articles and data is one of the pillars of Article of the Future, Elsevier’s on-going program to improve the format of the scientific article. Elsevier collaborates with more than thirty data repositories, and is continually looking to collaborate with other relevant organizations.

View article examples on ScienceDirect:

R. Alexander Pyron, John J. Wiens, A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 61, Issue 2, November 2011, pp. 543-583, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012.

Peter J. Unmack, Gerald R. Allen, Jerald B. Johnson, Phylogeny and biogeography of rainbowfishes (Melanotaeniidae) from Australia and New Guinea, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 67, Issue 1, April 2013, pp. 15-27, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.12.019.

James Starrett, Marshal Hedin, Nadia Ayoub, Cheryl Y. Hayashi, Hemocyanin gene family evolution in spiders (Araneae), with implications for phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the infraorder Mygalomorphae, Gene, Volume 524, Issue 2, July 2013, pp. 175-186, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.04.037.

Mercy Y. Akinyi, Jenny Tung, Maamun Jeneby, Nilesh B. Patel, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C. Alberts, Role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus), Animal Behaviour, Volume 85, Issue 3, March 2013, pp. 559-568, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.12.012

# # #

About Dryad

The Dryad Digital Repository is a curated resource that makes the data underlying scientific and medical publications discoverable, freely reusable, and citable. By providing a general-purpose home for a wide diversity of data types, Dryad benefits individual researchers, educators and students as well as a diversity of stakeholder organizations. Dryad is a member-based nonprofit organization incorporated in North Carolina, USA with users around the world.

About Elsevier

Elsevier is a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services. The company works in partnership with the global science and health communities to publish more than 2,000 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and close to 20,000 book titles, including major reference works from Mosby and Saunders. Elsevier’s online solutions include ScienceDirect, Scopus, Reaxys, ClinicalKey and Mosby’s Suite, which enhance the productivity of science and health professionals, and the SciVal suite and MEDai’s Pinpoint Review, which help research and health care institutions deliver better outcomes more cost-effectively.

A global business headquartered in Amsterdam, Elsevier employs 7,000 people worldwide. The company is part of Reed Elsevier Group plc, a world leading provider of professional information solutions. The group employs more than 30,000 people, including more than 15,000 in North America. Reed Elsevier Group plc is owned equally by two parent companies, Reed Elsevier PLC and Reed Elsevier NV. Their shares are traded on the London, Amsterdam and New York Stock Exchanges using the following ticker symbols: London: REL; Amsterdam: REN; New York: RUK and ENL.

Media contact

Dale Seaton
Executive Publisher, Journals
Elsevier
+1 212 633 3862
d.seaton@elsevier.com
 
**Update: In addition to DOIs, the banner widget also works with PubMed IDs

Photo by David Iliff; license: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Dryad invites current members, prospective members, and other interested parties to attend the Annual Membership Meeting in Oxford, UK on the 24th of May.  This is the first open meeting of the newly incorporated organization and will be the last membership meeting before the introduction of deposit fees in September.  Attendees will learn about recent developments, get a preview of upcoming features, have a say in the governance of the organization, and weigh in on topics of relevance to the future of Dryad, its members and partner journals.  Speakers scheduled to present emerging issues include:

  • Marianne Bamkin of JoRD – Model journal policies and implementation
  • Jonathan Tedds  of PREPARDE - Review of data associated with publications
  • Simon Hodson of JISC – The use of grant funds for data archiving costs
  • Sarah Callaghan of the CODATA-ICSTI Task Group on Data Citation – Data citation principles
  • Martin Fenner of PLOS ALM – Tracking data usage and impact
  • Eefke Smit of STM – The how and why of repository certification
  • Susanna Assunta-Sansone of ISA and BioSharing - Helping researchers to collect, curate, analyse, share and publish data.
  • Bill Michener of DataONE – Relevance of the DataNet program to Dryad

The Membership Meeting will cap off a series of exciting events spotlighting trends in scholarly communication and research data:

  • The Now and Future of Data Publishing on 22 May – A daylong program featuring new initiatives and current issues in data publishing. Organized by the JISC together with a range of organizations including BioSharingDataONESTM and Wiley-Blackwell.
  • The ORCID Outreach meeting on the morning of 23 May and ORCID CodeFest from 23-24 May
  • A joint Dryad-ORCID Symposium on Research Attribution on the afternoon of 23 May.  The symposium will address the changing culture and technology of how credit is assigned and tracked for data, software, and other research outputs.  Keynote speakers Johanna McEntyre (Europe PubMed Central) and David DeRoure (Oxford eResearch Centre) will be joined by panelists Liz Allen (Wellcome Trust), Christine Borgmann (UCLA), Martin Fenner (PLOS), Neil Chue Hong (Software Sustainability Institute), Trish Groves (BMJ), John Kaye (British Library) and moderator Cameron Neylon (PLOS) to address the many faces of the issue.

You may register for events separately here and here through May 13th.  A block of rooms has been set aside at the Malmaison Hotel; enter corporate code OXER900 to receive a discounted rate. Please consult the Dryad membership meeting website closer to the event if you are interested in viewing the webcast.

We hope to see you there!

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